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Financial services legislation, passed by Congress in 1999, that removed Depression-era prohibitions against the combination of commercial banking and investment-banking activities. It allows insurance companies, banks, and securities firms to engage in each others’ activities and own one another.


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A final order of a trial court, which gives effect to the decision in the case. Judgment should be distinguished from verdict, which is strictly a finding of fact requiring an appropriate order to make it operational. In a criminal case, the sentence is part of the judgment.

Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX)

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was signed into law on 30th July 2002, and introduced legislative changes to financial practice and corporate governance regulation. It introduced stringent new rules with the stated objective: “to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures made pursuant to the securities laws”. The act is named after its … Read moreSarbanes-Oxley (SOX)


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An agreed fact in a legal proceeding. In order to save time in a trial, the parties may agree to matters so obvious or irrefutable that requiring formal proof would waste time and effort. Possible stipulations often are an item of discussion in pretrial conferences.